10 Memory Techniques For Students

1. Give directions in multiple formats
Students benefit from being given directions in both visual and verbal formats. In addition,
their understanding and memorizing of instructions could be checked by encouraging them to repeat
the directions given and explain the meaning of these directions. Examples of what needs
to be done are also often helpful for enhancing memory of directions. 2. Teach students to over-learn material
Students should be taught the necessity of “over-learning” new information. Often they
practice only until they are able to perform one error-free repetition of the material.
However, several error-free repetitions are needed to solidify the information. 3. Teach students to use visual images and
other memory strategies Another memory strategy that makes use of
a cue is one called word substitution. The substitute word system can be used for information
that is hard to visualize, for example, for the word occipital or parietal. These words
can be converted into words that sound familiar that can be visualized. The word occipital
can be converted to exhibit hall (because it sounds like exhibit hall). The student
can then make a visual image of walking into an art museum and seeing a big painting of
a brain with big bulging eyes (occipital is the region of the brain that controls vision).
With this system, the vocabulary word the student is trying to remember actually becomes
the cue for the visual image that then cues the definition of the word. 4. Give teacher-prepared handouts prior to
class lectures Class lectures and series of oral directions
should be reinforced by teacher-prepared handouts. The handouts for class lectures could consist
of a brief outline or a partially completed graphic organizer that the student would complete
during the lecture. Having this information both enables students to identify the salient
information that is given during the lectures and to correctly organize the information
in their notes. Both of these activities enhance memory of the information as well. The use
of Post-Its to jot information down on is helpful for remembering directions. 5. Teach students to be active readers
To enhance short-term memory registration and/or working memory when reading, students
should underline, highlight, or jot key words down in the margin when reading chapters.
They can then go back and read what is underlined, highlighted, or written in the margins. To
consolidate this information in long-term memory, they can make outlines or use graphic
organizers. Research has shown that the use of graphic organizers increases academic achievement
for all students. 6. Write down steps in math problems
Students who have a weakness in working memory should not rely on mental computations when
solving math problems. For example, if they are performing long division problems, they
should write down every step including carrying numbers. When solving word problems, they
should always have a scratch piece of paper handy and write down the steps in their calculations.
This will help prevent them from losing their place and forgetting what they are doing. 7. Provide retrieval practice for students
Research has shown that long-term memory is enhanced when students engage in retrieval
practice. Taking a test is a retrieval practice, i.e., the act of recalling information that
has been studied from long-term memory. Thus, it can be very helpful for students to take
practice tests. When teachers are reviewing information prior to tests and exams, they
could ask the students questions or have the students make up questions for everyone to
answer rather than just retelling students the to-be-learned information. Also, if students
are required or encouraged to make up their own tests and take them, it will give their
parents and/or teachers information about whether they know the most important information
or are instead focused on details that are less important. 8. Help students develop cues when storing
information According to the memory research, information
is easier retrieved when it is stored using a cue and that cue should be present at the
time the information is being retrieved. For example, the acronym HOMES can be used to
represent the names of the Great Lakes — Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior. The
acronym is a cue that is used when the information is being learned, and recalling the cue when
taking a test will help the student recall the information. 9. Prime the memory prior to teaching/learning
Cues that prepare students for the task to be presented are helpful. This is often referred
to as priming the memory. For instance, when a reading comprehension task is given, students
will get an idea of what is expected by discussing the vocabulary and the overall topic beforehand.
This will allow them to focus on the salient information and engage in more effective depth
of processing. Advance organizers also serve this purpose. For older students, Clif Notes
for pieces of literature are often helpful aids for priming the memory. 10. Review material before going to sleep
It should be helpful for students to review material right before going to sleep at night.
Research has shown that information studied this way is better remembered. Any other task
that is performed after reviewing and prior to sleeping (such as getting a snack, brushing
teeth, listening to music) interferes with consolidation of information in memory.

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