Educational Heritage of Ancient India : A Talk by Sahana Singh

So in the years that I have been living outside
India, I get a lot of questions like: how is it that you Indians are motivated to study
so hard? What is it that makes you study so hard? And another question I get very often is that
why despite being so intelligent and smart – Indians being so smart – why is your
country in such a mess? So, when trying to find the answers for these
questions I did a lot of reading and that’s how I ended up writing this book. So, I am not a historian; I’m an engineer. But like many others today I’m just trying to connect the dots and get a clear picture of our civilization. So that’s what I’m trying to do. So, and this book, as he mentioned, it’s,
today there are a few copies, but it’s mainly available on So you have to order them on Amazon. I’m using the money that I get for Indic
causes. So let me take you back to a time long ago
when India was the educational capital of the world. So, one of the most important things was that
there was a sacredness associated with learning and teaching. So, you can see that here is a ceremony, a
sacred ceremony, where a child is being initiated into the alphabets. So does anyone know what this ceremony is called? Yes, and also Vidyarambha. It’s called Vidyarambha and Aksharabhyasa
in South, and there is a similar ceremony in Bengal called Haate Khori, which they do
on Saraswati puja, when boys and girls are introduced to the alphabets. So, you can see that there was a deep sense
of sacredness associated with learning and teaching and there was also a ceremony called
upanayanam, which many of you know wherein a child would enter into higher education. Again, sacredness associated with it. There was a mad rush for gaining education
in India, just like today there’s a rush to go somehow get into an Ivy League university in the US or get into Oxford and Cambridge in the UK. Something like that was happening in India
in ancient times. So most of the civilized part of the world wanted to get and get a degree from India it was like that. So, students came from China, Japan, Korea,
Indonesia, Malaysia, West Asia. Recently I discovered that I-Tsing did not
come directly to India. First, he went to Indonesia, he learned Sanskrit
there, so that he would be able to get into one of the advanced institutes in India. So, some of them did not come straightaway
to India. So Fa-Hien, Huan-Tsang, I-Tsing – these
are the famous Chinese students who came and got an education in India and if you read
their autobiographies you will be moved by the dangerous journeys they undertook to come
to India, somehow, like they nearly died in the process they took boats, they walked,
but their aim was clear that, I have to reach Nalanda or I have to reach Vikramsila or some of them were even aiming for Kerala the Kanthalloor shala, you know. So, I need to get a degree from India that
was the spirit with which they came and on top of that after coming to India there was
no guarantee they would get admission because there would be an admission test and many
were eliminated. So I’ll tell you more about it as we go along. So here is an artistic representation of a
forest University which was the earliest kind of university, where holistic learning was
obtained in the middle of nature under the supervision of a guru who was like a parent,
and so in the Mahabharata there is a mention of many ashramas which functioned like universities. So ashramas of Shaunaka, Kanva, Vyasa, Vasista,
Viswamitra. Rishi Kanva’s ashrama was not a single ashrama,
it was a collection, an assemblage of hermitages of which he was the presiding rishi. So, a student would go to one in ashrama and
specialize in one subject under the Guru, then go to another ashrama, adjoining ashram,
and get specialization in another subject, and then this way he would go to different
ashramas and complete his degree. That’s the way it worked, and they were specialists
in every branch of learning of the time Vedas, yoga related literature, logic, grammar, mathematics,
zoology, physical sciences, medicine and what have you, and they were rush with female issues
which are mentioned in Mahabharata. Now I come to a page from Nyaya Sastra. So, this I’m just trying to show you how obsessed
the Indians were with logic, with understanding, with learning the science of knowledge as
well. So, in this, you know, the Indians also wanted
to know, what was good reasoning, and what was bad reasoning. So, they made rules for all that. But if you reason in this way, it’s good,
if you do it in this way, it’s bad, and basically this is how, they became it, led to science,
this kind of thinking led to scientific discoveries because they all, they had, they did a lot
of thought experiments and they try to answer questions like Who am I, where have I come
from, why do we feel that there are two people inside us, one which is doing the actions
and one which is observing everything. So, in trying to answer these questions they stumbled upon important discoveries in science and mathematics. So, for example and also there was no distinction
between religion and science, no false barriers. So, when they would try to do a Homa with
a perfect square, they would need a perfect square, and in the process of drawing that,
they discovered the rules of geometry. In trying to find the best timing, the most
auspicious timing, they actually found out the laws of planetary motion and other, you
know, the celestial phenomena. So that’s how religion actually led to science
for the Indians, and I’ve taken this code from the Nyaya Sutra to show you how scientific
it is. “Truth exists, whether or not we humans
acknowledge it”. Akshapada Gautama said this in the Nyaya Sutra,
he also said all knowledge is not intrinsically valid. So, these are the kind of statements that form the bedrock of science even today, modern science. Look at what Susruta said in Susruta Samhita. He said, this was an interdisciplinary approach
to learning that he took a physician, who has learned one science only, cannot be sure
of his own science, and for this reason the physician has to be versed in many Sciences. This is the approach we take today, that you
can’t be just looking at one subject. You need to be interdisciplinary if you want
to solve the real-world problems. Here’s a map, I have tried to map out the
universities in the ancient times until the eleventh or twelfth century and you know it
was, there are so many universities you can see that it’s completely, it’s every part
of India is covered so far. The oldest one we have found is in Takshasila,
which is today in Pakistan, which seems to be at least 6th century BC, but must be definitely
older than that. Then we have Sharada Peeth, we have Purushapura,
Varanasi. In the Bengal-Bihar side, you see, a cluster
of universities Nalanda, Odantapura, Bikrampur, Jagaddala. Then you come to the South, so many Mathas,
so many agraharas, there’s Kanchipuram, there’s Kanthalloor sala in Kerala, which
was called the Nalanda of the south and actually – it had even more subjects than Nalanda because
it even had martial arts, and such subjects as well. The interesting thing is that the people did
not stay confined to their regions. So, the professors and students traveled to
the institution of their choice, just like today we have students going to Manipal, going
to IIT Kharagpur, wherever they want to study. In those days, they did the same. So, in Nalanda, for example there were two
professors Sthiramati and Gunamati, they were the ones who set up Valabhi university in
Gujarat and then they went to Nalanda to teach. Then we also had gurus who came from Kanchipuram
who moved to Nalanda, we had from Kashmir, there was a professor who taught in Vikramsila. So, we can see that everybody is travelling;
and there’s an interesting story from Kathasaritsagara where a Brahman person says that I am going
to send my son to study in far off Valabhi, even though I am in Gangetic plain. I think Valabhi is a better place to study
and we conjecture that’s because Valabhi was specialized in political science, business
and whoever graduated from Valabhi would get into government services very easily. So he was sending his son to Valabhi. That was more than 1500 years ago and also
it was important once the students finished their education in any of these universities
they needed to travel, their gurus would tell them to travel: go and experience different
parts of India, go and experience discomfort different kinds of weather, different people
and that was the way practical learning and traveling was very important for the students. So, this is Bhaskaracharya. The funny thing is that most people are familiar
with Newton, Einstein but if you ask them about Bhaskaracharya today, they know nothing
about him. Does anyone know which University taught him? Bhaskaracharya? So he was from Ujjayini University. Ujjayini University was a place you went to
study if you had an aptitude for Maths, if so, whoever graduated from Ujjayini, they
would, they would say, ‘oh he’s a math genius, he’s, he has to be super intelligent’. So, he formulated so many interesting form
rules for, you know, solving equations. He was the first one to use a decimal system,
you know, and before him, it’s not just him, if you go back, there’s a lineage Brahmagupta
was before him, and he was the first to use zero as a number in its own right. So, what to do? How? What happens when you add zero to a number? what happens when you subtract zero from a number? He made all those rules and he followed the
Bhaskaracharya, followed in his footsteps and went beyond. He discovered differential calculus. So, he has been, he’s been called one of the
most brilliant brains ever in the world. This is quite recognizable, I’m sure. Nalanda. now when you see Nalanda today, it’s all crumbling
ruins. I also visited this place and then the only
way we get to know what it looked like is when you read the autobiography of Xuan-Tsang
and I-Tsing, so what Xuan-Tsang said is that, it was the most beautiful campus he had ever
seen. It had a huge gate all around the campus and
when he entered, he said the place was full of lakes, ponds; ponds with lotuses blooming
in them and they were these were tall buildings. So, they were, for example, the library was
nine storied and he said that if he went to the main building the top story, when you
looked out, you would see splendid sunsets, you would see brilliant moonlit nights, and
he said that you can see the pride he feels on studying in this place, and then he said
that at the entrance there was a big statue of Buddha and there were eight halls in the
campus, in the building, and the lecture there would be hundred lectures in a day, and the
lecture halls would be full, and students would not miss a single lecture that was the
kind of learning, and Nalanda in those days offered a wide range of subjects. So, it had something for everybody. So, a lot of students they were about 8,500
to 10,000 students, and there were 1,500 teachers. So, you can imagine the student- teacher ratio
is so good, and not to forget the admission tests, which was so hard that only 20% students
would make it, 80% would be eliminated, and probably that’s the reason why we have so
many universities adjoining the Nalanda. Vikramsila, they’re all at short distance
from each other, possibly they came to, you know, to absorb more students because so many
were being eliminated. So, the others to universities came near them
and they were also coaching centers. So, outside the village, in the villages surrounding
Nalanda, there is, there are records of teachers who were preparing students to crack the entrance
examination for Nalanda. Now, I come to debating, which was an intrinsic
part of Indian education. So, you can look I have chosen this picture
of Adi Sankara debating with Mandana Misra and look who is the judge it’s a lady who
is, who was a renowned scholar in her own right – Ubhaya Bharati – and this was
the way knowledge was propagated in India. So, it was not just one man says it and everybody
believes it. It would be challenged, there would be debates,
where everybody would sit and watch and this is how Sankaracharya and various other gurus
did, the same thing. They went all around, in fact, he went right from Kerala – all the way – even Kashmir which I’ll talk about later. So, here are some debating terms that I thought
would be interesting for you, just to show you how developed the art of debating, was
how it was placed on a very serious footing, sound footing. So, you just could not go and start debating
with somebody. You need to know, needed to know these terms. You also needed to be very familiar with the
arguments of your… the person you want to challenge, you should be, you needed to know,
how to argue in the place of that person as if you were him which is called purva paksha;
arguing from the point of view of your opponent. So, look at these terms –
Sadhya – thesis which is to be developed established. Siddhanta: proposition tenets or conclusion. Hetu, Udhaharana, pratyaksha, anumana, pramana..,
these were the kind of terms that they use. So, it was, it was a very intellectual exercise,
the whole debating tradition and what’s more interesting is that, they actually had criteria
for giving points or taking points away. So, the other day when I was talking to my
daughter and she was trying to make it seem like she was doing the debating of a very
high order in her school and she didn’t know that, it was, it was even higher in India. So, that’s when I had to told her all these
things… So, they had terms like this for deducting
points, hurting the proposition: Pratijna-hani – shifting the proposition. Pratijna-antara – opposing the proposition. Pratijna-virodha – renouncing the proposition. Pratijna-sannyasa – shifting the reason. Hetavantara (just look at all this) – resorting
to the unintelligible. Avijnatartha – becoming incoherent. Aparthaka.., because you would be, if you
try to evade the topic, if you try to become incoherent, you would lose points, and there
were many more points, and Vasubandhu is not the only one, there are many many books written
on debating. So, the very significant thing about India was that there was a well-established ecosystem to support learning. So, it was like the whole society knew that
we have to take care of teachers and students because that’s the only way education go forward. So, the expenses were subsidized by the ruling
Kings. Then Nalanda University was funded by hundred
villages so all the revenues of those villages would go for the food, the clothes, the medicines
of the students who studied there. It was one of the most well-funded universities
and in the other ashramas, which were not very well funded the students had to pay,
but even there the poorest students, typically the Brahmins would be the poorest students,
would do menial tasks. They would do menial tasks and that would
be in lieu of paying the thing for paying the fees, and there was no shame for a Brahmin
student to go and solicit financial assistance. So, he could go to knock at any door and he
could see would say, ‘look I need to pay my fees, can you help me’, and then some
help would be found for him. The ethos of the times demanded that Brahmin
scholars led simple lives and engaged in pursuit of knowledge without amassing riches. So it fell upon the shoulders of wealthy non
Brahmin families and farmers to support those who devoted their entire lives to learning
and teaching. This has been pointed out by Huan-Tsang also. He said, he was so moved to find Rishis who
was so engrossed in learning that they didn’t care about the, what they were wearing, what
they were eating, and they just went around teaching whatever they knew, and these people
were held in respect even though they were so shabbily dressed. So that was the ethos of the times. Now I come to the temple universities of India. So, universities… the bigger, the big temples
for not just places where people went and worshipped their favorite deity or they perform
marriages. There was something more. They also functioned as educational centers
because the temples acted like magnets, which would attract the best. So, then, they started building annexes to
temples, and they would hold lectures in the Annex, the annex to the temple; lectures,
debates., all these things happened in the temples. Eventually they also started having different
departments where different subjects would be taught by different people, and on the
temples there would be settlements, which were called Agrahara, where the king would
subsidize the land for them, and they would live there, the teachers, and they would all
have, their houses there look like a campus, and the students could actually go directly to the houses of the Brahmin teachers, and learn from them. They would just sit in the verandah, the teacher
would come out, teach them and like that. In every house the same thing would be happening;
so, the, this, these were all you can just see how well develop the institution of learning
was in ancient India. So, this is a place in Tamil Nadu, an item
which has, which has a bonanza of inscriptions, which is, which really shows you, how institutionalized
our to, our universities were. So, it tells you how much land is being given
to the teachers. For the first of all, for the temple, for
the purpose of teaching, this is for a Vedic bachelor, and it’s talking about how much
the allowance would be given to the teachers. So, it says the teachers will get 16 times
the meal allowance of the students and it talks about how the students who are studying
the higher subjects like Vedanta, Mimamsa will get 66% of the stipend, that the students
was the, compared to the students, who are studying the basic subjects. So, all this was well qualified, how much money will be given, what will be, how will you be taught. So, there was no confusion about this, and
there are many inscriptions like this found all over South India. But ennaiyar is one place you should go. So, these are the ruins of Shardapeeth in
Kashmir today. You can’t, when you look at Kashmir, you can’t
really imagine, a kind of a university like this, but there was a time when Kashmir was
known by the University called Shardapeeth, and the whole state was called Sharda desh,
because of the temple Sharda temple as well as the University, and this university was
so well known for the, for the, rare manuscripts it had in the library, that people traveled
from different parts of India, for example, Ramanujacharya came all the way from Kerala
to study to refer to the only available manuscript of Bodhayana vritti in order to write the Sri Bhashya, the commentary that he wrote on the Brahmasutras. So, he came all the way from Tamil Nadu to
Kashmir to refer to that book. So, this, this was the ecosystem of universities
that we had. Today, of course, it lies in ruins because
it has been destroyed. Now I am coming to the knowledge transfers
from India to China. A large number of Sanskrit manuscripts were
carried to China either by Chinese scholars or by Indian scholars hired by Chinese kings. So, we spoke earlier about Huan-Tsang and
the I-Tsing. Those were the scholars who came from China
to India. But actually, from India also, a large number
of scholars, Sanskrit scholars, went to China and they lived for long years there translating
because for the Chinese it was considered to be a very very important job to get the
Sanskrit works translated into Chinese as quickly as possible, as many as possible. So, you can literally fill a whole book with
the works of translation done by the professors. So, the first two went to China were Kasyapa
Matanga and Dharmaratna. So, they made a very difficult journey, they
went across Chinese Turkestan, Gobi Desert and again they had a very difficult journey,
and on top of that they had to learn Chinese, which was the child of totally different syntax
from Sanskrit. But they did it, and when they did it, it
was like this, started a deluge. Oh, so many scholars followed them Sanga Varma,
Dharma Satya, Dharma Kala, Mahamalla, Vigna, Dharmapala – a whole lot of them. I could not fill in all of, fit them all here
and they were not just from northern India. For example, Dharma Ruchi was a scholar from
southern India. He went to China lived there for 20 years
and he translated 53 works into Chinese. So, there was people knew that, you know,
there is a demand for them in China. So, if they, didn’t, were not happy with what
they were getting in India, they would move to China. It was not always a happy outcome because
this person poor fellow called Dharmakshema was being wooed by two kings, two Chinese
kings, and in the crossfire, he got shot by an assassin. This happened with some other scholars as
well. Amoghavajra was another scholar. He collected 500 texts from different parts
of India and went to China and he got many titles from Chinese Kings and he is called
the founder of the tantric Buddhism and he had another, there’s another incident with
him. When he translated, see… he spent years
and years translating. The poor fella took leave to go back to India,
the moment he stepped foot in India, he got a message that he needs to go back, because
the Chinese king wants him back, and he without seeing his family, he had to go back. Indian astronomers and mathematicians from
the best universities held high positions in China’s scientific establishments. A big example is Gautama Siddha. So his Chinese name was Kutan Siddha. One of the reasons, why you would probably
not know, who is who was an Indian professor in China, is that their names should be changed,
they would have a Chinese name. So that’s why, we probably don’t know all
the Indians who went to China. Kutan siddha, he was called, and he became president of China’s official Board of astronomy in the 8th century. He translated Navagraha calendar to Chinese. He introduced Indian numerals to China and
the invention of printing press is attributed to Buddhist scholars who went from India to
China. Today we know that printing was invented in
China, but the work was done by Buddhist scholars who went from India and printing was used
as a means to spread Buddhist thought. This is a statue of Kumarajeeva; not many
of us have heard about him. But he’s well known in China. Kumarajeeva, he basically grew up in Kashmir
and culture, and he translated more than 100 Sanskrit works which are considered masterpieces
of Chinese literature. The ‘diamond sutra’ which is a valuable
work in Buddhism was translated by him and this tattoos in Zhen Jiang in China. He was like one of the viewers, considered
a very brilliant person by the Chinese, and so he, they have honored him. But we don’t know anything about him. Then I come to the knowledge transfers fromIndia to Greece, Islamic world and Europe. I’ve covered China. Now I’m talking about the Islamic world and
Europe in this. Dr. Raj Vedam, I heard, has done a lot of
work. So, there was a thriving trade between India
and the Western Asia, the whole the rest of the world, in spices and textiles, but also
in medicines, not people know that, medicines also were being continuously supplied by India,
herbs medicines. So, Raj has laid out the trajectory by which
I obey the… was transmitted out of India. So, he, this Rishi Kanada, he speaks about
Rishi Kanada, who wrote important works in Vaiseshika, the Vaiseshika school of Indian
philosophy, who influenced Democritus, because Democritus’s idea seemed very similar to what
Kanada wrote. Democritus’ student was Hippocrates who
is called the father of Western medicine. So, we can see where Hippocrates is caught
his ideas because if you see the Charaka Samhita, you will see that, there is something called
an oath that a doctor has to take before he is considered a via, and that is very similar
to the Hippocratic oath. So, and of course, Charaka came much before
Hippocrates. So, the link would be Democritus. Raj is also spoken about the Library of Alexandria. So, this library played a very important role
in transferring works from east to west. It was situated in such a located, in such
a place that, and they were the administrators of this library, went to any extent, beg,
borrow, steal., to get the most authentic manuscripts from wherever, wherever they could
get there, the best manuscripts and so they got a lot of manuscripts from India, and probably
that’s how, that also served as a route for translations to Latin, and other languages. In the in the earlier years of Islam, when
the Abbasid caliphs were ruling in Baghdad, that is a time when a number of translations
happen. For example, Manka who was in the court of
the Abbasid V of Abbasid caliph, Haroon Rashid, that’s what he was called. He translated Susruta Samhita to Persian. The Indian scholars were often invited to
Baghdad. So, you know, the works, the famous works
of Al Farabi, Al Kindi, Al Farghani, Al Tabari, Al-khwarizmi – who is called the father
of algebra, but they all acknowledge that they got knowledge from India. They have actually referred to the books that
they got from India, but for some reason all these works are now attributed to Arabs or
Europeans. But you can trace it back to India. So, while the Islamic scholars often credited
their knowledge to Indic sources the European scholars frequently plagiarized from Arabic
texts without references. The Renaissance was propelled by the works
of Arabic scholars, which was passed off as original works by Europeans. So, the Renaissance actually all of a sudden, these works were attributed to European scientists and scholars. But they were actually all translations of
Arabic text and where did those Arabic texts came from, come from, they came from India,
and one important link is Toledo school of translators. Toledo in Spain, when it was run over by the
Christians. So that’s the time they established a school
which would spend all day if they put us in an army of scholars whose only job was to
translate Arabic works to Latin. So, in the 12th and 13th centuries you will
find a whole lot of Arabic works translated to Latin, and even in the Latin that the use,
you can see Arabic, so you can make out where it came from, they couldn’t just find the
word for it in Latin. So, they let it be in Arabic. This is a statue of Garcia D’Orta. He was a Portuguese who settled in Goa in
1538 – another big source of knowledge transfer – he collected a lot of information about
medicines – Ayurvedic medicines and he wrote this book: ‘Coloquios dos simples e drogas
he cousas medicinais da índia’. So, in which he listed all the herbs that
Indians are using for various diseases and he said this can be used for this, and this
were influenced later works of medicine in Europe. Now I come to the unhappy part when these
glorious universities came to an end. Bakhtiyar Khilji, Bakhtiyar Khilji and… Today if you imagine an army of horsemen coming
to a campus killing every professor every student over there, and bodies lying around. Well, that’s what happened. You can’t even think about it, and this happened
at a time when there was, there were no electronic storage devices, no cloud. So, we can imagine how much, how much knowledge
was lost. So, he destroyed Nalanda, Vikramsila and Odantapuri in one stroke, one after the other, this small group of horsemen. You can of course blame the scholars and professors
for not knowing that this was coming. Well, we can, we don’t know what happened. But then they were all sitting ducks, and
then in later years, all the other universities were destroyed – Jagaddala, Somapura, Valabhi,
Kashmir, and that’s how, you know, when the thing is that, the earlier libraries which
were destroyed in Cordoba, Alexandria, Persia and Ghazni did not set off alarm bells in India. They didn’t realize this is coming to India as well. They destroyed all the big libraries there
as well, and when they came to India the first thing they did was to destroy the temples
and the viharas because they realized, there are also places of learning. There was an emphasis on Islamic education. Once the Muslim, the Delhi Sultan’s established
themselves, they set up centers for Islamic education and Arabic and Persian were imposed. So, the day they tried to destroy the basis
of Sanskrit, which was existing over there, and they just wanted to change it all to Arabic
and Persian. There was some respite during Akbar’s rule. I mean until Akbar, it was terrible. But when he became, he tried to bring back
some strength in the madrasahs, because earlier Hindus were not even allowed to study madrasas,
so that this was a time when the Islamic rule was very strong in India. A number of scholars went to the periphery they went to the states where there was no Islamic control. So, they’ve been as far as they could, and that’s how they tried to preserve the learning that we had. They carried their manuscripts, they carried
the murtis of the deities and they tried to keep it alive. When Akbar came, things improved a bit. Again, it all vanished when Aurangzeb came. So again everything, all the gains that our
Akbar made were lost, and the interesting thing is that, there was an absence of science
education during the Mughal Rule. Earlier during the when the Muslim in the
first few centuries of Islam in in Baghdad, you saw, how the Muslims were actually they’re
interested in education, and there was a free spirit of debate in those times. But during this time after the when the Delhi
Sultans came and when the Mughals got established, especially the during our unzips rule, no
science education. They were at the most, they were interested
in poetry, that is before, you know, not in orange Apes regime, but in other Muslim ruled
kingdoms, there was some interest in poetry. But for some reason science did not figure. The Sanskrit works of scientists and mathematicians of earlier periods began to be forgotten in their land of origin. The Mughals did not build up on the leading-edge
concepts presented by Hindu scholars of an earlier era to become the world leader in
science and mathematics while madrassa has proliferated and students became adept in
the finer details of the Quran and hadith in Muslim India. The Western world was making advances in science
and technology. The Mughals had a golden opportunity: they
were, they were ruling at a time when India was the number one country in economy, right. But the Mughal kings missed the opportunity
to write the wave of technological discoveries in the West despite rolling over the richest
land in the world, and that’s why when the British came, they didn’t find any great scientists
in India. They just found, you know, completely dumbed
down education system, that is, I’m talking about the higher universities. Now I come to the colonial period, the British
emerged victorious over the Portuguese and the Dutch and all the other Europeans. They all battled among themselves and finally
the British were victorious. They spread their tentacles to different parts
of the world and, of course, they in India, they were very successful at first. The British did not bother with the education
of natives and focused on playing politics with different rulers. So, you see, even in Africa, they didn’t try to learn. There was not interested in education or anythinglike that. But then they realized the need because now,
here, they could, they found, they could not control India. India was a place where they were gain, they
wanted to get a lot of wealth from. So, they needed to rule them, they needed
to govern them, and that’s why they set up this College Mohammedan College and Sanskrit
College in Calcutta, in Banaras. So that they could get a regular supply of
Hindu and Muslim law officers, so that, they could govern them, and the interesting thing
is that, there was, they were true camps, from the Anglicists and the Orientalists. The Anglicists wanted everything to be taught
in English. They said let’s teach them, let’s translate
our, there’s no need to translate, let’s just use our English books to teach them, whereas,
the Orientalists said that let’s translate our English works into different languages
first. Let’s make them like us and then slowly we
will bring them into our fold. That’s the, that was the attitude of the Orientalists. So why did the British impose English on India? First reason was convenience: it started out
with that because they didn’t want to learn all the Indian languages, and they couldn’t
understand Indian languages. So, it was very convenient to have English
speaking menials, English speaking people. So, this says, let’s set up English educational
centers. But the most important reason was that ‘these
sepoys would become disloyal’. Now they needed an army as well. So, they had an Indian army and they realized
that if the suppose started learning in their own languages, there’s going to be trouble,
because the Muslims would real that these people are all infidels and we should not
be having any business with them, if they kept studying the Islamic literature in their
own language. Then they would, they would not be loyal to
the British. The same thing with the people who studied
Sanskrit because then they would regard them as malicious and unclean people who don’t
have Dharma, adharmic people. So, the British realized the danger of letting
the education continue in the regional languages and then with the elite, they realized that
if you make them study in English, then familiarly acquainted with the English literature, the
Indian would speak of great Englishmen, with the same enthusiasm as the British themselves. By the way, these are not my theories, this
is all written down by Macaulay’s brother-in-law Trevelyan. He also played a big role in the educational
policy. So, he wrote all this, he said ‘familiarly
acquainted with English literature that in Indian would speak of the great Englishman
with the same enthusiasm as the British themselves, they would reject the teachings of Brahmin
priests, the natives shall not rise against us, because we shall stoop to raise them’. It was a well-thought-out policy, very well
thought out and after all, after fifteen-year debate between the Anglicists and the Orientalists,
came the McCauley’s minute. The Macauley memorandum which was circulated
in order to come to a decision about what kind of educational institute should they
fund. So, they came up with the English Education
Act of 1835 after the debate. But we must look at my college minute. I’m sure many of us know it. Let’s read it again: “we must at present
do our best to form a class, who may be interpreters between us and the millions who be govern
a class of persons Indian in blood and colo,r but English and tastes, in opinions, in morals
and in intellect. To that class, we may leave it to refine the
vernacular dialects of the country to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed
from the Western nomenclature and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying
knowledge to the great mass of the population.” So now after this was the English Education
Act was passed. English struck its roots in the soil of India. Missionaries schools were set up and, you
know, what happened meanwhile, the funny thing is that when all this was happening in India,
look at what was happening in England. England was languishing in illiteracy; a miniscule
fraction went to school and the only book most literate people had read was the Bible. Now I’d like to talk about Dharampal. I think some of you would have heard about
him, but by and large, most people I speak to haven’t heard of Dharampal. We owe a big debt of gratitude to him, that he brought so many facts to light that we never knew before. So what did the Rampal find? Dharampal went to London on some other work and he happened to spend a lot of time in libraries there and he came across archival
material of extreme significance. A series of surveys commissioned by British
government in 19th century to assess the level of indigenous education in India. So, we have to give it to a British for being
very systematic, a very systematic. So, they first want to know, what is the level
of education in India. So, they conducted a series of surveys in
Madras Presidency, Bengal presidency, Punjab – various parts of India and they also documented
it. What did they find? They found that every village in India had a pathshala and there were 1,00,000 per challahs in Bihar and Bengal alone! So just imagine it’s mind-boggling, one pathshala
in every village, and what was taught. In those parts Allah’s reading, writing, epics,
all of them knew Mahabharata and Ramayana, Bhagavata, arithmetic was taught was very
compulsory and it literacy was very high, very few illiterates exist. Today they knew their language. if they were in Andhra they knew Telugu, if they were in Tamil Nadu they knew Tamil, that was taken care of. Teachers were very dedicated there, were superior
methods of teaching and there was high attendance. All this is reported by the people who did
the survey. Another interesting thing was, the and which
broke the stereotype, that we have in the large number of schools sudras very majority,
well the Brahmins, and by C’s with by Shias were in minority. So, for example, he found that he’s given
percentages, you know, in some schools 70% were sudras, in some schools 50% were sudras, in some schools there were number of girls like in Kerala. There were many schools which had girls plenty
of girls. So, the school, at the basic level our education
system was intact when the British actually did the survey, the partial a-level, our education
system was intact, even though the universities had been destroyed by the Muslim invaders. Now I’m talking about the poverty and famine,
how it became rampant during the British rule. Look at this picture of sadness, how they
are people who was becomes, they become skeletons? There we must understand that India was governed
for the benefit of Britain. So, everything that India produced food grain,
textile, steel, gold, silver, minerals everything was for the benefit of Britain. There was no food for teachers and students in pathshalas. How could education survive? Earlier there was a system where nobody went
hungry, they could go and ask for food, they would get food, now there was, they there
in some places like Tanjavur mass poverty was created overnight by imposition of 59
percent taxation of gross produce! The district collectors role was to fleece
citizens. So, you will read accounts of how they are
going, you know, their mapping India, simply because they want to fleece the maximum revenues
out of the place. Temples were not spared, they had to part
with your donations and it was a matter of time, before they all fell into despair and
this continues even today. The British educational policy sounded the
death knell for regional languages. So once English took root, it was a matter
of time before regional languages became very down market, very uninteresting for the people. Mother tongues were relegated to second languages. That’s why Mahatma Gandhi said in 1931, that
the British left India more illiterate than it was 100 years ago, because now it was only
she knew English, you were considered educated. So, if you knew Tamil, Telugu, you know, they
felt like they were illiterate useless people, if they were not, if they didn’t know English. So, it was also a destruction of self-confidence
and self-esteem. There was a chance for India to decolonize
itself when we became independent. But that also did not happen. Even today, we India looks at itself through
alien eyes, which is very sad. So, today we can say that our past heritage
lies buried in regional and Sanskrit literature. So, if we really want to know, what we were,
what we were capable of, we need to learn our own languages, our mother tongues and
Sanskrit, in order to understand what we were otherwise we will just not know. We will just look at ourselves from the perspective
of the Western world. I’m often told that my, you know, it’s a lot
of people tell me, why do you study history, why do we need to know our pasts, you know,
we need to concentrate on today, what can we do today, and look to the future, that’s
the thing, I get to hear very often. So, this puts me in a dilemma because, you
know, there is for this meaningless to say that, you know we should, it’s like living
with amnesia if you don’t know your past because the past present and future are on a continuum. So, if you just focus on today and tomorrow
then we are not going to know our abilities. So, whatever it happened today is the result
of what happened in the past and what’s going to happen tomorrow is the result of policies
and actions that are happening today. So, it’s in a continuum, makes no sense to
say that, we are not going to look at the past because it’s uncomfortable for us or
because it’s depressing for us. We need to look at it, in order to know, how
to go forward, and one of the quotes that I give to people, when they tell me ‘not
to not to pay attention to history’ is this. If you don’t know history, then you don’t
know anything. You are a leaf that doesn’t know that, it’s
part of a tree. Michael Crichton said that. So, now, I’m coming to an end, and this is
the global IHAR team. I am a part of Indian history Awareness and Research. So, we are a bunch of people from different
backgrounds. Dr. Jayakumar Srinivasan and Dr. Raj Vedam
were the founders. Dr. Subrata Gangopadhyaya is the president
and we all come from different backgrounds: medicine, engineering and we all bring our
perspectives to history, but we look at it from an Indic point of view. We don’t want to look at it from a Western point of view anymore. Of course, we find it useful. Let that also be there. But the Indic perspective is very important. If you have any questions you can email me
here and you can find my book on Amazon, you can connect with IHAR on Facebook or YouTube. Thank you!

100 thoughts on “Educational Heritage of Ancient India : A Talk by Sahana Singh

  • Its a great job you're doing mam, to educate the ignirants,Naives, n new generation about the glorious past of India specially the mysterious science n knowledge of the ancient deities of bharat, hats off to you with lots of love from pak

  • Sadguru has said that education is a crime on humanity, and its very much true. moreover here Mr, Rajeev dheekshit who studied at IIT, explained even better. please don't feel that under educated or the low scored students as stupid and don't discourage them by which they can commit suicide.

  • Overall, like the breadth that it covers. Right intent but lack of attribution and citation during the talk (may be it's present in the book itself). At many places, the conclusions are drawn which doesn't seem logically sound. Like when the transfer of mathematics and sciences via translation of Indic text in Middle-East is quoted, and thereafter saying that all the learning that they had came from India. The conclusion one would draw is that the later works were inspired and found basis in Indic texts. Again the wholesale denigration of any knowledge generated in Europe, saying that it all originated basically in India(in science and mathematics).

    It would be great if someone researched deeper on one such span of time and studied influence of Indic texts on European knowledge base in science and mathematics during medieval times, while also researching the lineage of knowledge/discovery in Europe.

  • What a farce this is that we speak in fluent English to deride the English people and glorify Sanskrit and our own educational heritage and Sanskriti !!! What is there that is objectionable in Macaulay’s so called minutes that we keep crying over If he says – “ we will stoop and raise them” ?
    instead of harping on the past glory Why don’t these people develop an Indian system based on any common Indian language to teach technical subjects and science and show the world that English is not the only language essential for learning ?
    I met Dharmpal and saw the highly conditioned and biased mind he had. That is the beginning of end of scientific temper and true learning. Constantly fed on such propaganda , Indians will lose whatever fragments of true spirit of quest remains.

  • Very costly lesson learnt by India!! Your wealth, knowledge, prosperity will be gone to dust if we do not have *STRONG* Nation. What a colossal waste! Even now only 10% Indians knows these facts.

  • आपकी "रचनात्मक बातें" (srijan taiks) यदि हिंदी भाषा में भी डब कर प्रसारित कर पाते तो यह अधिसंख्य लोगों तक पहुंचकर ज्यादा सृजनात्मक हो पातीं…… हिंदी में डब करके भी प्रसारित करने का निवेदन है ताकि अधिसंख्य लोगों तक आपकी बात पंहुच सके ….

  • Pls aap har sanskrit shabdh ya naam ko english me kehne ke liye mispronounce nahi kijiye, for EG:- It's Rishi Kanadh not Rishi Kanada, pls pronounce them as they are, avoid postfixing letter 'a' in every word.
    Ek aur baat kehna chahunga, vastivik sach ye hai ki methematics, physics aur science ke fundamental principals ki knowledge yaha shristi ke arambh se hi rishiyo ko thi, aur kayi raheshye vidya ki knowledge brain to brain direct transfer hoti thi with power of sankalp i.e thought.
    Vastavik sach ye hai ki isey institunalized karney ka kaam rishiyo ne kiya yaha. kayi sari vidyaye samay ke sath sath lupt bhi hoti gayi jinme se kayi baad mein phir se avishkarit hui alag alag rishiyo dwara. inn sari knowledge ke mool mein Bagwan Surya aur Sapta Rishi hai, unse hi ye gyan Ishwaku wanshajo ko mila aur unse hi aage rishi parampara chali.

    Baki apki di hui jankariya bohot hi acchi hai aur knowledgeble hai.

  • I wish to revive the culture and experience it before I die. The books that she referred I will read them and try to implement in our school.

  • Taking note of enduring legacy of British rule it seems they have succeeded more than Muslims in destroying India by choking its well spring.

  • Nice video
    I am writing this comment at the video time 4:30
    The way the presenter is taking the name if MahagBhara-Taa and Ashram-aa or Nyay-aa Shahtr-aa shows how deeply our world view and vantage point has been westernised that we pronounce Indian names in a western way…. Like I am from Delhi (Dilli / Indraprastha), and when I was a child I always questioned why do Delhi people take pride in pronouncing Dilli as DELHI (as if they are britishers)…. I can understand Britishers having problem in pronouncing Dilli so they spoke Delhi, but why we indians want to show ourselves as aliens and foreigners by calling it Delhi when we CAN pronounce the word DILLI

  • People were coming to India for education? First, we never allowed 80 % of our own population to study and giving admission to outsiders? Did Newton study in India? Or Einstein? Why we never formulated those principles of physics? If we are so great, then we never invented any of the modern things?

  • We need to think and do deep contemplation why we were destroyed and conquered..lets not do the same mistake again

  • India rising … u inspired me Ma’m…! I shall not sit quite or just keep sleeping on this issue from now on..!🙏👍🏻

  • हम अँग्रेजी भाषा के गुलाम क्यो है भगवान😢

  • I feel blessed and fortunate and saddened after this talk. How much we had, how much we knew, how much was lost. I wish there is some way to revive our gurukuls and temple universities

  •, .on..mummy

  • Unless muslman Christians leftist dalit learn and learn they are obstacle. 45% India is are they. Bojh for us. Once they start applying brain India will become india.

  • I feel cheated by Nehru-Gandhi family, which deliberately suppressed the truth… How wonderful and precious our culture

  • communism is our problem more than Islamic fascism because communist historians have very clearly shaped history to suit their agenda by putting an inferiority complex among Hindus. Hindus thing that there was nothing apart from caste system in Hinduism. and when they get disgusted then only they can easily fall prey to communist ideas that's what communists want. they have shaped history by giving little and non-coherent evidence but huge speculation.

  • before making any comment please subscribe this channel and share it with at least five to ten of your like minded friends, this is the way we can help these scholars in their revolutionary works and literary pursuits.

  • Even the Chinese respected our works. Indians however are too ignorant and lazy to preserve their own heritage!!!

  • The Whites are now the ones who are spearheading human rights movements and trying to tell us what to do now…how to act as civilized and decent people. It’s so unfair. 😔

  • Let’s get rid of the British system and let’s not allow them to come to India or anywhere else that there are large populations of Indians. They wanna come and tour India and take away souvenirs in the 21’st century when it was our rights and our liberties and very lives so many years ago!

    Let’s not promote English and instead promote Indian Bhasas. I vote for Indian languages first and the mitigation of the English language in India as much as possible!!! Only using it as a language of ABSOLUTE necessity when dealing with the Videshi rapists and colonial slavemasters!!!

  • I propose that Indians protest to the government in rebuilding our ancient universities and other buildings! Who cares who may complain!!! It’s our country and we can do what we want, we don’t need to bow any longer!!! If you’re truly patriotic?! Then stand up to the government and start making change by gathering together like-minded people in your societies. We don’t have to put up with anyone’s nonsense!!!

  • South Asia was inhabited by agriculturalist Iranian and euro Asian pastoralists
    No Indian didn't come the ribs and legs of Brahma

  • Islam does irrepairable damage to indian as well as world knowledge system. Today also there is danger look what isis done to library and museam of iraq and syria. Lets work together so that history should not repeat itself.

  • What was the glorious culture of india.? 80% of peoples are in india from lower cast.they never allowed to enter any ancient education institute. Hindu scripture clearly mentioned that those who shudra if listen veda pour hot lid on his ear and if they speak veda slit their tongue in two with don't white wash worst indiN culture ,its against most of the indians. Indian still not aware of thet.

  • She mentioned hindu philosopher adishanakaracharya…every hindus Must read his teaching especially dalit hindus.,+his+tongue+is+to+be+slit+if+he+pronounces+it;+his+body+is+to+be+cut+through+if+he+preserves+it.%E2%80%9D&source=bl&ots=5M0J55HuDv&sig=ACfU3U2mJOoZ0exe20jOEP9gE-gnWG75Vw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiV_daP7dDkAhWTguYKHfh6DdUQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ&authuser=1#v=onepage&q=Put%20molten%20lead%20in%20his%20ears%20if%20he%20hears%2C%20his%20tongue%20is%20to%20be%20slit%20if%20he%20pronounces%20it%3B%20his%20body%20is%20to%20be%20cut%20through%20if%20he%20preserves%20it.%E2%80%9D&f=false

  • She lie about india.80% of indians are dalit.inda was worst evil cultures because of caste system .upper class people create caste system for their selfishness.what will happens when shudra or dalit read or speak its from ur hindus secread books.liks here.,+his+tongue+is+to+be+slit+if+he+pronounces+it;+his+body+is+to+be+cut+through+if+he+preserves+it.%E2%80%9D&source=bl&ots=5M0J55HuDv&sig=ACfU3U2mJOoZ0exe20jOEP9gE-gnWG75Vw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiV_daP7dDkAhWTguYKHfh6DdUQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ&authuser=1#v=onepage&q=Put%20molten%20lead%20in%20his%20ears%20if%20he%20hears%2C%20his%20tongue%20is%20to%20be%20slit%20if%20he%20pronounces%20it%3B%20his%20body%20is%20to%20be%20cut%20through%20if%20he%20preserves%20it.%E2%80%9D&f=false

  • The average Indian IQ is 82 amongst the lowest in the world. Much claims are simply fraud stemming from an inferioriity complex. The Vice Chancellor of Andhra University has said that India possessed the knowledge of stem cell research, test tube fertilisation and even guided missiles thousands of years ago, providing as evidence, tales from the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana.

    Speaking at the Indian Science Congress on Friday, G Nageshwar Rao said, "We had hundreds of Kauravas from one mother because of stem cell research and test tube baby technology. It happened a few thousand years ago. This was science in this country."

    "…Mahabharat says, 100 eggs were fertilised and put into 100 earthen pots. Are they not test tube babies? Stem cell research in this country was present thousands of years ago," he added.

    Mr Rao also claimed that Lord Ram used astras and shastras, or weapons, which would chase targets, hit them and return. He said this was proof that the science of guided missiles was present in India even thousands of years ago.

    Mr Rao said that the demon king Ravana had 24 types of aircraft of varying sizes and capacities for different purposes. Mr Rao also said Ravana had several airports in Lanka.

  • The deserts did not have much medicinal plants and the ingredients, the science on medicine was imported by these deserts..

  • And the purpose of life will be lost if we dont get to know the spiritual wisdom and the heritage and our forefathers..

  • Excellent, brilliant, love it video🎥 🇮🇳😘🇮🇳😘🇮🇳😘🇮🇳😘🇮🇳💖🚩💖🇮🇳🚩💖🇮🇳💖🚩🇮🇳🚩🙏🙏🙏💞

  • I think this should be shared with the current historians of India, they have taught us false and distorted Indian History and hide the glorious Indian History….

  • Suhana Sing, a punjabi of aryan stock, keep repeating how institutionalized learning was in ancient India – but she fails to note that the foundation of all learning and culture is Tamil. She hides the fact that it was the Tamils that went to China but hides this by saying the sancrit scholars were sent . She is a punjabi, a north indian trying to find fit into the ethos of India which is Tamil .These northis pretend to be tamils but living in denial .Tamils are a distinct ethnic race.Tamils don't share the DNA of the migrant north indians that assimilated Tamil culture .The culture of India including the saree is ALL Tamil

  • All the sages and rishis of India were Tamil. There is no dialect or language in India that could compare to the rich literary tradition of the Tamils. Tamils ruled all of India in those days until the hordes of migratory aryans, primarily made up people from the hindi hearlands create choas and hybrided the rich wealth of the Tamils literary tradition.

  • She cunningly keeps proagating sanscrit when we find all evidence of Tamil scripts in China.Typicall as always these aryan north indians are UNTRUSTED.They are trying to piggy back on the glory of he Tamils .They will fail ! They can't be what they ain't ! Deep within they are envious of the great Tamils and deep within they have an animosity and hatred against the Tamil ! Why because they are not the indigenous ethnic tamil race

  • Singh, once again continues with her false propaganda to discredit the Tamils. She said there was a thriving trade between India and the western world when we all clearly know it was the Tamils thsat had trade links. And she continues that the knowledge transfer is from India. The fact is it was the Tamils that had trade links to China .But Singh says transfer from India. Here again as always, her attempts is to marginalize the Tamils .Knowledge transfers from India is a false and misleading understatement. It knowledge transfers from the Tamils ! And again it was the Tamils that had trade links with the rest of the world. Thus she is totally DISHONEST & UNTRUSTED .Surely because she is a Punjabi of aryan ancestry

  • Punjabis,Marathis,Bangladeshis,Biharis ,British,French,Dutch, French & Portuguese were all the invaders that made inroads into India through the north western passes in North India over many years . There were hordes of outsiders migrants that came into India . . Today many of these specially those that reside in India as indians have assimilated Tamil outfits as the saree . Indian culture is Tamil culture

  • You notice her emphasis is on the brahmins priests. Not the Tamils.A cunning ploy to hide the facts.Sing fails to understand that Truth eventually triumps !!!

  • McCaulays minute of education is no different from the Hindi Raj that dominates and suppresses the South .Pot calling the kettle black

  • Singh should stop saying in Kerala etc.Cause in those days the soulth was known as Tamilakam. Not Kerala. She appears to be ignorant that the other souther states of dravidian ethnicity were all offshoots of the Tamils. Beng a north indian of punjabi ethnicity she don't seem to understand all this

  • Under todays BJP rule educational policies , regional language became the deathknell .No different as from the time of the british. What happened from independance was , it was going from the fire to the frying pan .The distict south never had its independace but continued oppression from the Hindi Raj

  • Singh has now begun to understand her ancestral past as a north indian outsider .But is she honeset enough to do that ? I doubt so.Most indian historians are totally UNTRUSTED & DISHONEST.They live in DENIAL ! They claim to come from the rich heritage of the Tamils. No .Tamils are the native indegenous people of India and share no DNA from the north indians .Its all very clear north indians are not of south indian heritage but they find this very hard to stomach.Its a very bitter pill ! This is a culture shochk to them that they are not AUTHENTIC indians as the classical TAMILS !

  • All the team on indian global history are all dishonest and untrusted.Just because they have a platform does in no way means they have the option to Truth . Truth and tamil will prevail .Tamils the authentic Indians !

  • Singh need to look at history not from the western or indic point of view but from the point of establishing facts. Cause indic historians are the most DISHONEST and UNTRUSTED historians the world has ever seen ! They never tell the TRUTH !

  • Very interesting to hear these north india invaders talking about invaders .Its all so comical and laughable .It appears they don't know their ancestral roots – which is Aryans .All these north indians are descendants of Greeks, Mughals, Afghans and indo europeans .Shamelessly living in denial trying to impersonate and pigghy back on the culture and heritage of the tamils

    North indians are not ethnic indians .You dress an italian, greek, or french with a saree , they look like north ndians. North indians are of indo european stock. India history is very deceptive .Look at Singh, she easily passes of as an italian of french .Unless one is enlightened you will all fall for this garbage you see in the internet., distorting the history of India. . Tamils are the authentic indians and tamils are the only living classical race . .All others especially from the north are outsiders .North indians are NOT indians !

    North indians shamelessly claiming as culture belonging "to OUR tradition" is false . Tradition of India is not a north indian tradition. Its a Tamil tradition . These biased north indians like to cluster the great Tamil Cholas kingdoms to the north indians kingdoms. Tamils were a distinct entity .Tamils predates all other north indian kingdoms..Despite all this north indians make dubious claims ..

    These people as Singh, are totally ignorant or intentionally deceitful .. In her video , all importance is attibuted to the brahmins and sanscrit to discredit the Tamils and cloud facts ., Tamil stands on its own. Tamil predates the vedas !

    The threat to the indigenous dravidians , the tamils , came from the marauding north indian migrants.Not just from the Mughals. Singh shamelessly lies through her teeth . Totally dishonest in twisting history !!!

  • Watching this as we are looking at fee hikes at JNU and people are acting like these subsidies are "new" to our culture. Look how far we have fallen from our past. Who is our real enemy if we are doing this to our students and universities in our country today.

  • Now India get educated by fake liberal media and NGOs and foreign lobby. Then you Islamist and communist.

    What the hell is going on?

  • Muslim Caliph Omar is credited to burn library of Alexandria in Egypt.  Muslim are taught to burn anything that contradict Koran.  They even burn or destroy book that may agree with Koran because Koran supersedes  anything.

    Muslim ruler are piece of work.

  • Another objective engineer who has decimated subjective historians. What a spectacularly coherent & articulate speech! A must share in all my channels. Thank you, ma'am.

  • I noticed you Indians are very prompt to mention Einstein. The western mainstream media deceived you. Einstein is a plagiarist. He pieced the theory of relativity from Henri Poincarré, a french mathematician after his passing. So why is Einstein so famous. The answer is not in Einstein but how does one becomes famous : the media and who controls the Western media for the last past one century ? It's a jewish monopoly. Now think about all famous german, french and english scientists or philosophs none were jewish (Except spinoza). So when the first one made a half valid attempt at it the jmedia carried it and propagated it until even Einstein himself go sick of it. They still do today. This is what happened in a nutshell. Yes he is not without merit but hugely over hyped. He was mediocre in mathematics and should be considered more of a secretary/plagiarist who pieced together other people's research and put his name on it. He was no genius whatsoever.

  • This channel always has amazing content, makes one sit up & ponder..This video also one such.. This team of IHAR could well be basis of another revolution in education.. Creating Nalanda prototyes for future generations..It's a beacon of positive hope 🙏

  • Tis is an eye opener for the so cold
    Modern activities to know about the wrong schooling they have done can correct themselves .

  • This is really deep work. Felt really happy because it is fact and research based , when everything around us just superficial claiming of pride without any real knowledge.🌹🙂🙏
    Dear Friends, hope you find my new book "LIFE SKILLS FOR THE LITTLE ONES" useful.



    Look forward to read your reviews! 🌹🙂🙏

  • I have seen many videos of srijan.
    It's highly authentic,impressive, interesting.Still subscribers are very less.
    I think , advertising is required also.
    Good things doesn't spread easily.

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