(OLD VIDEO) The Cell Cycle and Cancer

Captioning is on! Please click the CC button at the bottom right to turn off. Follow the amoebas on Twitter (@amoebasisters) and on Facebook. Today’s topic is the cell cycle and mitosis.
But before we get into the cell cycle and mitosis, we want to be sure to talk about
why these words are important and how they relate to real life. So if I say the word
cancer, this words probably means something to you. Either you know somebody who has been
diagnosed with cancer or you’ve heard about it on the news. There’s many different types
of cancers but one thing they all have in common is that they are caused by uncontrolled
cell growth. That means, someone’s own cells grow out of control. Now, that doesn’t mean
that there aren’t other contributing factors for example for some cancers having genetic
links, meaning it runs in the family, can make someone more likely to develop it, or
having excessive exposure to UV light for some cancers. Those are risk factors that
can increase your risk. But the main cause of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. That
also means it’s something that it is not contagious and that it’s something that anyone can develop. You have to realize that all the cells in
your body are very busy. And they’re either in one of two different phases. They are either
in a phase called interphase and during interphase they are just growing, replicating DNA, their
doing their cell functions or they are in mitosis. Mitosis is a fancy word that means
they are dividing, they are making new cells. If you think about the cell cycle, whether
they are in interphase or mitosis, it’s kind of like a pie graph. They are spending about
90% of their time in interphase. Most of the time cells are not dividing, most of the time
they are in interphase, they are growing, they’re doing their daily cell functions and
they are replicating their DNA. Most of the time, not dividing. Now, depending on what
kind of cell, it might do mitosis more or less often; for example, your hair follicle
cells, they do mitosis frequently which is why your hair can grow up to half an inch
every month. But other cells like for example your brain cells, your neurons, some of them
do not perform mitosis, which is why if you have some type of major injury to the spinal
cord or to the brain, sometimes those do not heal very well because those cells do not
replicate. So mitosis is very important to generate new
cells, which can help with growth and also if you damage your cells. If you’re walking
down the street and you have some kind of accident, and you skin your knee, well you’re
going to need to repair those damaged cells. You’re going to need to be able to mitosis
to repair those cells. The thing is you don’t want your cells to be always doing mitosis
because if their always doing mitosis, then they are always dividing and then they’re
not carrying out their actual function and that’s a problem. That’s where check points come in handy. See,
along the cell cycle there are check points to check that the cell is growing correctly
and replicating it’s dna correctly and doing everything it’s supposed to correctly before
it divides. And what happens if the cell fails it’s check point? The cell does something
called apoptosis which basically means the cell destroys itself, it self-destructs. This
might seem kind of harsh but actually it’s really important because it ensures you don’t
have these cells that are messed up continue on and divide. You don’t want damaged cells
to continue on and divide because they might do not do what they are supposed to, they
might start to grow out of control, they might not be regulated correctly. That’s where cancer cells come in. See cancer
cells, as we had said, are your body’s own cells that are growing out of control. So
they are not following the rules of these checkpoints, they are flying past the check
points going through the cell cycle and frequently doing mitosis, which means they are dividing
very, very often. And so by doing that they can grow into these things called tumors which
are really a mass of cancer cells. So we’re not really sure what causes them to escape
these check points. There are a lot of factors that a person can have that will increase
their risk of this happening, but when these cells get past these check points and grow
out of control, they become a problem. Because many times they can travel through the bloodstream,
they started growing out of control, the body can’t identify them and destroy them with
the immune system and so this becomes an issue and usually one the treatments that someone
with cancer will go through is called chemotherapy. And this works by targeting cells that go
through the cell cycle quickly and hit mitosis quickly. And that’s one reason why many people
will lose their hair when they are on chemotherapy because their medication that’s targeting
fast growing cells and their hair follicle cells are also fast growing cells. Cancer cells have some other factors that
make them difficult to treat. One is that cancers have the ability to secrete their
own growth hormone. This is very bad because growth hormone in the sense, think of it as
a hormone that says, “FEED ME.” What happens is the blood vessels will divert over to those
cancer cells and supply the cancer cells with nutrients. This is not good because it means
the cancer cells will have the nutrients they need to keep growing out of control. It also
can take nutrients away from nearby healthy cells. There are some medications that are
being researched that maybe could stop the growth hormone from cancer cells and in the
sense that would be great because the cancer cells would not be able to get the nutrients
to grow out of control. Of course, you have to make sure the medication is targeting just
cancer cells and that hurting the growth hormone of nearby healthy cells. You wouldn’t want
that. So it’s kind of a tricky situation. So let’s recap what we talked about today.
We talked about the cell cycle, how cells are more frequently in interphase than in
mitosis. Interphase is when cells are replicating their DNA or their growing, and carrying out
cell processes. In mitosis, the cells are actually dividing. We talked about how during
this cell cycle there are checkpoints that regulate the cell and keep the cell from being
able to continue on if it’s damaged…unless we’re talking about cancer cells which are
cells that have escaped the checkpoints and are growing out of control. Be sure to check
out our clip on mitosis. This process is really fascinating, but it’s also a really important
one in order to understand how your body cells work. That’s it for the Amoeba Sisters, and
we remind you to stay curious!

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