What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?


Matter, as we know it; Atoms, stars and galaxies, planets and
trees, rocks and us. This matter accounts for less than
5% of the known universe. About 25% is dark matter;
and 70% is dark energy. Both of which are invisible. This is kind of strange because it
suggests that everything we experience is really only a tiny fraction of reality. But it gets worse. We really have no clue what dark matter
and energy are, or how they work. We are pretty sure they exist though. So, what do we know? Dark matter is the stuff that makes
it possible for galaxies to exist. When we calculated why the universe
is structured the way it is, it quickly became clear that there’s just
not enough normal matter. The gravity of the visible matter
is not strong enough to form galaxies and complex structures. The stars would more likely be scattered
all over the place and not form galaxies. So, we know there is something else inside
and around them. Something that doesn’t
emit or reflect light. Something dark… but besides being able to calculate
the existence of dark matter, we can see it… kind of. Places with a high concentration of dark
matter bend light passing near by. So we know there’s something there that
interacts with gravity. Right now, we have more ideas about
what dark energy is not, than what it is! We know dark matter is not just clouds of
normal matter without stars, because it would emit particles
we could detect. Dark matter is not anti-matter, because anti-matter produces unique gamma
rays when it reacts with normal matter. Dark matter is also not
made up of black holes, very compact objects that violently affect
their surroundings, while dark matter seems to be
scattered all over the place. Basically, we only know 3 things for sure; 1. Something is out there. 2. It interacts with gravity. 3. There is a lot of it. Dark matter is probably made up of a
complicated exotic particle that doesn’t interact with
light and matter in a way we expect, but right now, we just don’t know. Dark energy is even more
strange and mysterious. We can’t detect it, we can’t measure it
and we can’t taste it. But we do see its effects very clearly. In 1929, Edward Hubble examined how
the wavelength of light emitted by distant galaxies, shifts
towards the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum
as it travels through the space. He found that fainter, more distant galaxies
showed a large degree of red shift; closer galaxies, not so much. Hubble determined that this was because
the universe itself is expanding. The red shift occurs,
because the wavelengths of light are stretched as the universe expands. More recent discoveries have shown that,
the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Before that, it was thougth that the pull
of gravity would cause the expansion to either slow down or even retract and
collapse in on itself at some point. Space doesn’t change its properties
as it expands; there’s just more of it. New space is constantly
created everywhere, galaxies are tight bound clusters of stuff
held together by gravity so we don’t experience this expansion
in our daily lives. But we see it everywhere around us. Wherever there is empty space in the
universe, more is forming every second. So, dark energy seems to be some
kind of energy intrinsic to empty space. Energy that is stronger than
anything else we know and it keeps getting stronger
as time passes by. Empty space has more energy than
everything else in the universe combined. We have multiple ideas about
what dark energy might be. One idea is, the dark energy is not
a thing, but just a property of space. Empty space is not nothing, it has its own
energy. It can generate more space and
is quite active. So, as the universe expands,
it could be that just more and more space appears to fill the gaps and this leads
to a faster expanding universe. This idea is close to an idea that
Einstein had back in 1917, of the concept of a cosmological constant, a force that counteracted
the force of gravity. The only problem is, that when we tried
to calculate the amount of this energy the result was so wrong and weird,
that it only added to the confusion. Another idea is, that empty space is
actually full of temporary, virtual particles that
spontaneously and continually form from nothing and then dissapear into
nothing again. The energy form those particles
could be dark energy. Or maybe dark energy is an unknown kind of
dynamic energy fluid or field which permeates the entire universe,
but somehow has the opposite effect on the universe than normal
energy and matter. But if it exists, we don’t know
how and where or how we could detect it. So there are still a lot of questions to
answer. Our theories about dark matter and
dark energy are still just that; theories. On one hand, this is kind of frustrating,
on the other hand this is frontier science making it very exciting. It shows us that no matter how much
we feel we’re on top of things, we are still very much
apes with smartphones, on a tiny fragile island in space looking into
the sky wondering how our universe works There is so much left to learn,
and that is awesome. This video is supported by the
Australian Academy of Science, which promotes and supports
excellence in science. Learn more about this topic
and others like it at nova.org.au. It was a blast of work with them
so go check out their site. Our videos are also made possible
by your support on patreon.com, if you want to support us and become part
of the Kurzgesagt Bird Army, check out our patreon page. Subtitles by the Amara.org community

100 thoughts on “What is Dark Matter and Dark Energy?

  • Dark Matter is just a term used to describe something we don't understand. The same with Dark energy. Rather than consider the possibility that they may simply just be wrong, like many scientists since science began, they just invented placeholders to represent things that "must" be there in order for the math to work. Without dark matter and dark energy inventions, our understanding completely falls apart. I get the need for that, but I also think scientists can be extremely naive. Not all of them obviously NGT has explained this well. But many other science journalists and "educators" present dark energy and dark matter like it's a sure thing. It could in fact represent our extreme ignorance of how the universe actually works rather than a missing piece of the puzzle. Although I think it far more likely to simply represent something we do not yet know/understand.

  • It's the first time that when science calculations didn't work out, that they decided to add invisible matter and undetectable energy until their math worked out . How is this different than religion?

  • …if Dark matter reflect no black body radiation at all, why to presume that something is there. It is a hole in the SpaceTime field, no energy no time. We live in a cheese like Universe. Thank me later.
    Maybe, more possible it is SpaceTime contouring, bending all around the hole creating a lensing effect, not gravity but a hole. A hole in SpaceTime, nothing inside, no Energy nor Time, like bubbles of nothing. Maybe? Have we experienced anything bouncing off of Dark Matter? Have anything flew thru Dark Matter? Have we witness any celestial buddy or radiation pulled towards Dark Matter gravitation? Not gravity, just SpaceTime ruptures, stretched, teared apart after loosing energy, holes of… Ups, here goes nothing. Galaxy rotation and everything else… SpaceTime "Field Tensors" Get it?

  • Dark matter is simply the atoms that switch universes. This exerts a small repulsion force. Combined with billion of trillions…it is the force

  • What if dark energy is formed like normal energy but with particles opposite to those of regular energy, some that we have never seen before, maybe some that even break the laws of physics

  • :p PLEASE READ my shot point of view of the universe : 

    See like this : you have the mass of galaxies that pulls the fabric of space around itself, and the dark energy would push gravity around them (like bubbles of water in ISS). 
    It would mean dark energy contains no information.
    And that's why we find dark energy in very lonely regions of space where even the fabric of space doesn't exist (it also could explain 'the faster than speed of light' expanding universe), it means our galaxies and gravity around it are less dense than dark energy. 
    AND to conclude I really think and wish the universe is not infinite but spherical and has no borders : imagine if dark energy is the "basic fabric", with no law where A Big Bang with new laws can occur and make matter expand, and after trillions of years go back to one point infinitely dense and BOOM ! create another universe with different laws ! 
    Do you visualise that motion of bubble expanding and going back ?
     If we look at the universe at max scale we see branches of galaxies floating around : It looks like string theory from what I understood ! Each atom may not be composed by matter but by a fluffy unpredictable "source of energy" vibrating in a certain way and creating a different set atoms ! So the rules that make up our universe, making matter behave in a certain way could be the vibration of such a sting ! SO to conclude we can't see inside an atom because light can't "hit" it : so an atom may be full of vacuum for us because we are enormous compared to it but is dark energy to the small entities living inside this bubble 😀

    SO AT 6:03 in the background, for me, its the string ! you are watching the inside of an atom with crazy details ! 😀

  • Things written nearly 2,000 years ago, speak of this. Before electron microscopes, orbiting telescopes, or other modern technologies; those inspired by God to write, wrote of things modern man is just coming to find tangible evidence of.

    Colossians 1:15-17 KJB
    – 15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
    – 16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by Him, and for Him:
    – 17 And He is before all things, and by Him all things consist.

    Romans 1:20-21 KJB
    – 20 For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:
    – 21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
    – 22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
    – 23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.

    2 Timothy 3:7 KJB
    – 7 Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.

  • Question if the Big Bang created the universe via sudden expansion would the expansion be evenly distributed? I agree with the Empty Space theory and the Cosmological Constant and am totally on board with those ideas and currently I see Dark Energy as a sort of bubble in the soupy mixture that was once the heated product of The largest explosion/creation of the expansion of space therefore could the empty/dark energy be a by product of uneven expansion within the cosmos? For example as you heat up water it forms bubbles due to h20 being stripped down to hydrogen and oxygen the bubble being Dark Energy and the water being Matter. Thoughts?

  • 5:48 "What we dont know that we dont know " welcome to the dark matters of YouTube 🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔

  • How did scientists come up with percentage of dark matter and dark energy or in other words what experiment or calculations did scientists used to come up with these percentages?

  • Gravity is a form of energy like electricity, or electromagnetism having a positive and negative charge. A North or South magnetic pole. Gravity creates positive pressure and expands space but "dark energy" creates negative pressure and is pulling all matter back into itself. That's my thoughts on the "matter."

  • So in other words " we don't know jack about what dark energy/matter is…but we are certain its not God. I mean it just can't be right"?

  • Crashing gravity waves; splashes of space time. Bubbles in the void that pop; collapsing inwards, the waves collide, canceling each other out but… It’s resonance echos and reflects outwardly.

    From nothing, everything.

  • I want to add another possibility. – Scientists on this planet have witnessed the spin of alien galaxies and measured the speed. Then according to our knowledge of mass and inertia, this galaxy and every other one measured should totally fling them-selves apart. But they don't. Therefore science has concluded that what we see is the effect of [MORE] gravity. More than the gravity from the matter visible, so the matter that produces this gravity is invisible. So let's call it 'Dark Matter'… This scientific method has a flaw. Here it is. When scientists saw the spin of these measured galaxies was too great for the mass of those galaxies to keep in gravity/balance, scientists assumed they saw more of the same gravity, requiring more of the same gravity producing mass, when what they saw was a DIFFERENT gravity. This is just a hypothetical… What if the Earth, planets and sun emit a gravity that works like we understand… (We have an understanding that if you jump off a cliff you're going to fall. But we have NO idea why.) However, we attribute gravity to mass, and expect it to do as it's supposed to do. But we didn't see that when we measured the speed of rotation of galaxies. We saw too much speed for the mass. I think that galaxies are kept from flinging apart by a different kind of gravity. And that gravity comes from super-compressed mass such as in 'Sagittarius A*'. This mass under unimaginable pressure emits a 'focused' gravity that adds to and amplifies normal gravity – The amplification effect is cumulative, so matter close to this super-compressed gravity source reacts as normal gravity is acting on it. (Granted incredible gravity due to the incredible amount of mass in a super-compressed mass gravity producer such as the super massive black hole in the center of our and most galaxies. So close to the source, the different gravity doesn't amplify and adds very little. As that cumulative-effect gravity spreads to the edge of it's galaxy, it has grown in amplification by hundreds, even thousands of times and galaxies do not fling apart. AND invisible matter is not necessary.) Further more, I propose that the gravity of both of these types moves faster than light. (I also think that the different types of gravity will eventually be found to be a spectrum. With different masses producing gravity with different attributes.)

  • Thanks to this, every time I feel depressed- I just remind myself that everything that I am going through is just a tiny fraction of reality and that it will just pass…

  • Dark matter is the weak force – Neutrino with zero space between the magnetic 🧲 poles – force that pulls while is a black hole or while is trapped into stars, planets and moons into their cores – general relativity.

    Dark energy is the strong force. Force that compresses in quantum level.

    Mass is anything that has space.

  • I find it a nonsensical. Why would galaxies not form up ? If there is matter present it will attract other matter to it, it is called gravity and that forms a collapsing spiral of hoovered up material until that eventually becomes visible and due to its now increasing compacture it attracts more and more matter towards it. The fact that space appears to be more dense near galaxies is because they will have attracted huge amounts of microscopic dust and stray atoms surrounding them which, in turn is sucked in by the gravity of the galaxy. Although microscopically unrecordable, collectively they probably contain just as much matter as the galaxy which they surround and, of course, collectively, they will exert a gravitational force, which is being misreported as the gravity created by dark matter. The problem with astronomy in relation to dark matter is that it cannot contemplate something that enjoys its own physics. It has to be measurable.That is arrogance locked in the belief that physics can explain everything i.e. the cause and effect will be observable. I suggest not in the case of dark matter, it has its own physics and dark matter is the only constant in all of the universes in existence and in the past but it does not share its physics with any universe .

  • If dark matter doesnt interact with normal matter, how does it keep galaxies together, which are made of normal matter?

  • (stupid comment alert)
    What if dark energy is in a fourth dimension therefore we can't detect it nor understand it.

  • Dark Matter does NOT exist :
    – We've been running Atom Smashers for 80 years, have made anti-matter and 300 sub-atomic particles, but NO Dark Matter.
    – Even if Dark Matter is "invisible" it would interact with Stars and Planets whereby the Mass of Stars would increase, upsetting the balance of Nuclear Fusion, causing Stars to run hotter than they should, and Planets and Moons would be heavier than their list of elements would indicate, throwing off orbital trajectories and mathematical predictions.

  • Particles that are too small to become magnetic through the big bang are left invisibly small. The immeasurably small particles stream into matter and cause it's' atomic fiction. Magnetism is induced in the particles that hold close proximity to matter. The particle's invisible size allows each one to take the place of an atomic section of the matter. Countless dark matter particles stream into atoms and out after leaving their dark matter energy for atomic functions. Dark matter particles do not stay magnetic once they achieve it. Like busy bees they gain, give and leave magnetic force in the material hive: maintaining the formations of molecules and providing the wave functions to matter. Yes waves are dark matter particles. Yes they are maneuvering at 3 times the speed of light. They slow down twice when controlling matter: Yet they still meet photons and electrons at the finish line. Our true human shape and zone are completely electrically active before our visible atomic form begins. Our atomic world is a density achievement. Our most rigid form is our dark matter circuitry skeleton. Once the dark matter particles are fully energized, then atoms are formed: Making us visible. Atoms are colder than the dark matter particles that stream through them. When dark matter particles stream through atoms it cools them for smooth exiting. Temperature fluctuation is how dark matter leaves electrical charge or magnetism behind in the body. The body uses what it needs and gravity is provides with the left over magnetic force. cJT

  • Aww so those little energy balls that I can see float like spores from time to time are dark matter, now l feel like Harvard and FBI want to know my location

  • If we don't know anything about dark matter and dark energy, how can you tell about its composition in universe??
    Please explain it boss
    Tell me about it more

  • We kinda have a way to detect dark energy. More a proof of concept than anything. During the supernova explosions there are a lot of energy thrown at earth and apperently it also includes dark energy and that causes certain exotic particles to temporarily form even though there is no grounds for it to form. I think that stuff was only replicated 3 times so far, first time by accident.

  • You don’t have to search so far to find the dark energy of dark matter. Both of them are inside you and every living thing around you. It’s what we knowing as are soul. If we ever be able to see the dark matter than you are also be able to see every ghost around you and all the angels and demons.;)

  • Have you wondered what space is? It's a thing that exists, a thing in which 'we' exist. Even when there is nothing, there is space. Even a vacuum with nothing in it, is still encompassing space. I still wonder how 'space' is created, and what it is composed of, because you literally exist in it and pass through it. Like when you wave your hand, your hand is moving through space, which is strange if space is really made of something. Like how the it is stated that the universe is expanding. How is that extra 'space' actually created. Maybe space is a really high dimension? Who knows?

  • Or maybe dark energy is just the Creator's 'hand' that is constantly inputting energy to make sure everything in the universe still functions tomorrow. Since matter has no inherent energy a constant input from its Creator is needed. What a perfect way to do it without man messing with it!

  • Maybe there is a supreme intelligence out there that we can't see, the idea of unseen energy and matter is a thought so why is it so difficult to imagine an unseen higher power. Maybe GOD is the answer. We see design that equates to intelligence.,

  • I’m studying math and engineering, yet the more I learn, the stronger I believe that God exists, creating this universe with such a delicacy and beauty that make us marvel at His Glory and Greatness

  • what if dark matter is just quarks floating around? Or the particles quarks are made up of.
    What if dark matter is how electrons change form when we view them?

  • Dark matter is the air of space combined with the cosmic force of dark energy that expands the universe in oblate directions. Eventually dark matter will destroy everything.

  • It's all around us !
    GRAVITY is different everywhere here or other planets…
    DARK MATTER is what holds or control everything
    DARK ENERGY is what holds or control all movement.

  • Just wanted to clarify that the BING BANG or whatever u want to call it…THE BEGINNING, didn't scattered in all directions HOWEVER it had blown up in one direction
    Example : take a balloon 🎈 expand it then squeeze it
    You will end up with a hole, not many of them.

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